The Kerala Land Reforms Act:
The Kerala Land Reforms Act was a state law enacted in 1963 by the government of Kerala. This law aimed to bring about a redistribution of land, abolishing the traditional landlord-tenant system prevalent in the state. It was a move to provide land to the tillers, ensuring social and economic justice by reducing land concentration among a few wealthy landowners.
However, several landowners challenged the law, arguing that it violated their fundamental rights. Their contention was that the law infringed upon their right to property, a fundamental right at the time, as guaranteed by the Indian Constitution.
The 29th Constitutional Amendment:
In response to legal challenges and to protect laws like the Kerala Land Reforms Act, the government introduced the 29th Constitutional Amendment in 1972. The amendment aimed to amend Article 31 of the Constitution, which dealt with the right to property. The 29th Amendment sought to exclude laws related to acquisition of estates, like the Kerala Land Reforms Act, from judicial review. It aimed to make such laws immune from legal scrutiny on the grounds of violating the right to property.